What is Sapply () in R?

What is Sapply () in R?

sapply() function in R Language takes list, vector or data frame as input and gives output in vector or matrix. It is useful for operations on list objects and returns a list object of same length of original set. Syntax: sapply(X, FUN)

What can I use instead of for loops in R?

The chances are that you’ve already used a functional: the three most frequently used are lapply() , apply() , and tapply() . All three take a function as input (among other things) and return a vector as output. A common use of functionals is as an alternative to for loops.

How do you stop a loop in R?

Other ways to avoid the for loop: The apply functions: If you think you have to use a loop because you have to apply some sort of function to each observation in your data, think again! Use the apply() functions instead.

Should I use loops in R?

If you need to modify part of an existing data frame, it’s often better to use a for loop. For example, the following code performs a variable-by-variable transformation by matching the names of a list of functions to the names of variables in a data frame.

ARE FOR loops in R Bad?

for loops are not ‘evil’ in R but they are typically slow compared to vector based methods and frequently not the best available solution, however they are easy to implement and easy to understand and you should not under-estimate the value of either of these.

How do I loop through a vector in R?


  1. A vector seq has been created for you.
  2. Fill in the for loop, using seq as your sequence. Print out value during each iteration.
  3. A variable sum has been created for you.
  4. Use the loop to sum the numbers in seq . Each iteration, value should be added to sum , then sum is printed out.

How do I initialize a vector in R?

Create vector in R Vectors in R can be created using the c function, that is used for object concatenation. You can save in memory a vector by assigning it a name with the <- operator. Vectors can also be non-numeric. Hence, you can create vectors with characters, logical objects or other types of data objects.

How do I run a loop in R?

R For Loop

  1. For Loops. A for loop is used for iterating over a sequence: Example.
  2. Break. With the break statement, we can stop the loop before it has looped through all the items: Example.
  3. Next. With the next statement, we can skip an iteration without terminating the loop: Example.
  4. Yahtzee! If .. Else Combined with a For Loop.

How do you repeat a loop in R?

Related Articles

  1. Repeat loop in R is used to iterate over a block of code multiple number of times.
  2. Syntax: repeat { commands if(condition) { break } }
  3. Example 1:
  4. Output: [1] “Hello World” [1] “Hello World” [1] “Hello World” [1] “Hello World” [1] “Hello World”
  5. Example 2:
  6. Output: [1] 1 [1] 2 [1] 3 [1] 4 [1] 5.

What is a for loop in R?

Loops are used in programming to repeat a specific block of code. A for loop is used to iterate over a vector in R programming. …

What is an example of a repeat loop?

Examples. A repeat loop without a break statement results into an infinite/endless loop. # infinite loop repeat { print(“Press Esc to stop me!”) } [1] “Press Esc to stop me!” [1] “Press Esc to stop me!” …

What are the types of loop in R when to use which loop?

There are three types of loop in R programming:

  • for.
  • while.
  • repeat.

What are different types of loops in R?

There are three main types of loop in R: the for loop, the while loop and the repeat loop.

What is difference between for loop and while loop?

The ‘for’ loop used only when we already knew the number of iterations. The ‘while’ loop used only when the number of iteration are not exactly known. If the condition is not put up in ‘for’ loop, then loop iterates infinite times. In ‘for’ loop the initialization once done is never repeated.

What are the types of loop?

C – Loops

Sr.No. Loop Type & Description
1 while loop Repeats a statement or group of statements while a given condition is true. It tests the condition before executing the loop body.
2 for loop Executes a sequence of statements multiple times and abbreviates the code that manages the loop variable.

What is Loop example?

A loop is used for executing a block of statements repeatedly until a particular condition is satisfied. For example, when you are displaying number from 1 to 100 you may want set the value of a variable to 1 and display it 100 times, increasing its value by 1 on each loop iteration.

What are the 2 types of loops?

Loops are of 2 types: entry-controlled and exit-controlled. ‘C’ programming provides us 1) while 2) do-while and 3) for loop. For and while loop C programming are entry-controlled loops.

Which loop is guaranteed to execute at least one time?

while loop

What does a loop fingerprint look like?

Loops – prints that recurve back on themselves to form a loop shape. Divided into radial loops (pointing toward the radius bone, or thumb) and ulnar loops (pointing toward the ulna bone, or pinky), loops account for approximately 60 percent of pattern types.

How do we use loops?

A loop is a programming structure that repeats a sequence of instructions until a specific condition is met. Loops allow you to repeat a process over and over without having to write the same (potentially long) instructions each time you want your program to perform a task.

How does a for loop start?

The loop initialization where we initialize our counter to a starting value. The initialization statement is executed before the loop begins. The test statement which will test if a given condition is true or not.

Why I is used in for loop?

When you use a for loop, you have to have a variable. Since you are indexing in a for loop, you use i to represent index. “i” is a variable. If you nest a for loop inside of a for loop, the second for loop needs a variable.

How do you write a for loop?


  1. The init step is executed first, and only once. This step allows you to declare and initialize any loop control variables.
  2. Next, the condition is evaluated.
  3. After the body of the ‘for’ loop executes, the flow of control jumps back up to the increment statement.
  4. The condition is now evaluated again.

What are the 3 parts of a for loop?

Similar to a While loop, a For loop consists of three parts: the keyword For that starts the loop, the condition being tested, and the EndFor keyword that terminates the loop.

What are the two ways to end a loop?

The only way to exit a loop, in the usual circumstances is for the loop condition to evaluate to false. There are however, two control flow statements that allow you to change the control flow. continue causes the control flow to jump to the loop condition (for while, do while loops) or to the update (for for loops).

Which statement is used to stop a loop?

Break Statement

How do you break in a loop?

The break in C or C++ is a loop control statement which is used to terminate the loop. As soon as the break statement is encountered from within a loop, the loop iterations stops there and control returns from the loop immediately to the first statement after the loop.

How do you stop a loop without a break?

The else clause of a loop is executed when the loop sequence is empty. When a loop specifies no break statement, the else clause will always execute, because the loop sequence will eventually always become empty.

Can we write a for loop without initialization?

A ‘for’ loop can be written without initialization. A ‘for’ statement usually goes like: for (initialization; test-condition; update). We can leave out any or all three of them at a time. Therefore, for ;;) is a kind of infinite loop1 that is equivalent to ‘while’ (true) as there is no needed test condition.

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